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Elizabeth 1

Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558. She is widely recognised as one of the greatest of the English monarchs and under her rule, England became a powerful player on the world stage.

Determined to spread and enforce her Protestantism, Elizabeth 1 continued the campaign begun by her father in Ireland. The Fitzgeralds of Leinster and then those of Munster were overthrown. Connaught lost its urge to fight, and by the end of the century Ulster was the only place left where the Old Irish were still in the ascendant.

The Nine Years War, led by Hugh O'Neill and Red Hugh O'Donnell, proved a setback for Elizabeth. Finally, the Irish were defeated at the Battle of Kinsale. Elizabeth was an excellent politician so she allowed the O'Neill to remain Earl of Tyrone and the O'Donnell to remain Earl of Tyrconnell as her vassals, but she died in 1603 and her successor, James I was not considered trustworthy by the Irish Earls, who fled their country by ship from Innishowen in 1607.


  Elizabeth1 of England. Click for larger image



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